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- The story of an African famine: gender and famine in twentieth-century Malawi.;
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AfricaBib | The Story of an African Famine: Gender and Famine in Twentieth-Century Malawi
Browse by : Author Author Serial Subject. Enter author surname:. Display : 25 50 Previous record Next record. Actions Tools Choose a colour. Megan Vaughan's synthesis of the events surrounding the famine in Malawi in commences with a succinct review of international perspectives on famine, including debates regarding its causes and possible solutions. The book's forte, and what makes this work of particular interest, is the The story of an African famine: gender and famine in twentieth-century Malawi.
Abstract : Megan Vaughan's synthesis of the events surrounding the famine famine Subject Category: Miscellaneous see more details in Malawi malawi Subject Category: Geographic Entities see more details in commences with a succinct review of international perspectives on famine, including debates regarding its causes and possible solutions. One depressing lesson of over thirty years of famine early warning systems is that the warnings are not always heeded and that many people die because of delayed action Buchanan-Smith and Davies , Bailey , Hillbruner and Moloney , Hillier and Dempsey Bailey, Rob.
London: Chatham House, Despite the many warnings from FEWS NET, the tragedy was allowed to happen, mainly due to the politics of trying to prevent the Islamist organization al-Shabaab, the de facto administration in the famine- affected areas, from capturing humanitarian aid and diverting it to the support of their war machine. This is not an isolated example. Although famine early warning systems are becoming more sophisticated and reliable, delay persists.
A new approach to decision making is required concerning the appropriate timing of intervention. Buchanan-Smith, Margaret, and Susanna Davies. London: ITDG, They find that early warning signals were not acted upon in a timely fashion, partly due to the limited capacity of the relief system, but also because of red tape and political maneuvering between national governments and aid agencies. Corbett, Jane. These include maps of current and projected food insecurity; alerts on emerging or likely famines; and specialized reports on weather and climate, markets and trade, agricultural production, livelihoods, nutrition, and food assistance.
Hillbruner, Chris, and Grainne Moloney. After an in-depth analysis of the Somalia famine, the authors conclude that, in the absence of incentives for early action for the various stakeholders, preventable famines are likely to recur, regardless of the quality of the early warnings. Hillier, Debbie, and Benedict Dempsey. Oxford: Oxfam, Hillier and Dempsey examine the emergence of a full-scale crisis of hunger and livelihoods despite early warnings. Raising large sums for humanitarian response depends, they claim, on getting significant media and public attention, which in this case did not happen until the crisis point was already reached.
Copublished by Save the Children. Howe, Paul. He uses the dynamics of watch, sudden price spirals, media frenzy, overshoot, and peaks as examples, with particular reference to Ethiopia, Malawi, Niger, and Sudan. Maxwell, Daniel, and Richard Caldwell.
Pdf The Story Of An African Famine Gender And Famine In Twentieth Century Malawi 1987
Atlanta: CARE. In emergency situations of food insecurity, the CSI provides tools that are quick and easy to administer in the field, straightforward to analyze, and rapid enough to provide real-time information to program managers. It has been used in many African countries and several in the Middle East and Asia. It measures behavior—the things that people do when they cannot access enough food. CAUSES In the past, famines were seen as principally the result of natural disasters that reduced food production or interrupted trade. But it became increasingly clear toward the end of the 20th century that the failure of human institutions, especially political and economic institutions, and the degradation of traditional customs of social reciprocity are also heavily involved.
War, poor governance, failing states, corruption, and dysfunctional markets have likewise been blamed. Under colonialism, the political, economic, and cultural distortions introduced by European imperial adventures seem to have reduced resilience to famine and food insecurity in many regions. Examples are legion, with the best known being the Great Famine in Ireland in the s Nally ; Crowley, et al. Capitalism and the malfunctioning of markets are frequently cited as causes of famines. A recent example is the disaster capitalism thesis Klein , which suggests that famines over the last two centuries have acquired a new element that has become increasingly visible.
This is the opportunity for restructuring offered by the shock of the events of large-scale social and economic dislocation, an opportunity frequently taken by those with a vested interest in change. Communism and other forms of authoritarianism have also been blamed. First, during the Stalinist period in the Soviet Union there was a deliberate attempt to break the kulak class through the forced collectivization of agriculture.
In the view of some, this directly caused a famine in the Ukraine and about six million deaths in — Wemheuer Third, and more recently, there was a famine in North Korea Haggard and Noland Throughout history, climate been implicated in famine. It is difficult, however, to predict the future impact of human-made climate change Carty ; Engler, et al. Given the emerging extremes of temperature, and of drought and floods, it seems likely that poor people in the hardest-hit countries will be at increased risk. Carty, Tracy.
Oxfam Media Briefing. London: Oxfam, Recent droughts in East Africa are likely to have been exacerbated by human-induced climate change.
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The impact is not for the future; it is with us now in countries unable to deal with famine conditions due to poor governance, conflict, and widespread poverty. Atlas of the Great Irish Famine. Cork, Ireland: University of Cork Press, The level of scholarly detail is remarkable, with a regional cartographical coverage of the causes and impacts of the famine, drawing upon documents, poems, music, and photographs. Davis, M. London: Verso, New York: Walker, It shows that the famine was only part of the horror of living in China at the time.
Forced labor, cruelty, violence, and the absence of justice were all routine. Party cadres were ill- informed and themselves under pressure to deliver impossible targets. KWI Working Paper 1. Essen, Germany: Kulturwissenschaftliches Institut, The authors found a relatively high social and environmental vulnerability in Kenya, so that even minor shifts in climatic conditions can show major effects on food security.
Haggard, Stephen, and Marcus Noland. New York: Columbia University Press, Klein, Naomi. London: Allen Lane, Nally, David P. Famineogenic governance structures in which a social contract with the people was absent, coupled with the political indifference that arose from negative stereotypes of Irish destitution, drove this tragedy. Nally also argues that the famine was welcomed in some quarters as a lever to accelerate socioeconomic change. Patnaik, Utsa. For decades the encouragement of commercial crops at the expense of food grains weakened nutritional self-sufficiency and put marginal groups of consumers at risk of food insecurity and ultimately of famine.
Watts, Michael J. In precolonial times the Hausa stored food in good years against shortages in drought-affected years. Communal distributions meant that starvation was therefore avoided. When the British arrived they encouraged cash cropping and demanded taxes. Commodity production was therefore intensified, at times beyond the capacity of the ecological conditions. Food insecurity and famine became familiar. First published in Wemheuer, Felix. This was used to finance industrialization and urbanization.
It has been called a zombie theory because, despite evidence to the contrary, the neo-Malthusian specter of overpopulation continues to be raised as a famine risk Ehrlich and Ehrlich In the 19th century, a general increase in crop yields and the emergence of a global food trading system undermined both the agricultural productivity and food availability strands of the Malthusian thesis, at least for the more advanced economies of Europe and North America.
According to this perspective, food scarcity theory is on strongest ground where supply-side food problems have led to a per capita decline in food production, for instance in sub-Saharan Africa, though alternative explanations are available for recent famines there Devereux , cited under General Overviews.
Hunger, famine and the space of vulnerability
A number of recent books indicate that Malthusianism is merely one example of an international existential anxiety about expanding population in relation to quality of life—for instance adequate nutrition—that has been dealt with by vast programs of social engineering Connelly , Bashford , Mayhew , Mayhew Bashford, Alison. Connelly, Matthew.
Ehrlich, Paul R.