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The degree is also appropriate for some nonacademic careers, such as organizational communication consulting. Graduate Programs Overview. MA Degree Requirements. PhD Degree Requirements. Graduate Admissions. We welcome your questions or comments and will respond as quickly as possible. College of Media, Communication and Information. Search Enter the terms you wish to search for. Undergraduate Studies. Faculty Bios. Both men were consuls in BCE, at the point when they are shown debating the strategy for the closing stages of the Hannibalic war before the Senate.
His case Exordium Is the debate genuine if Scipio will ask the people to make Africa his province? His long and impressive career shows this attribution is unfounded.
At the end of his career he cannot envy a younger man who wants to prove himself. Tractatio Utile practicality : Defeating Hannibal in Italy is the only way to end the war. Exempla: i defeat of the Scipios in Spain; ii Athenians left a war at home led by an energetic and noble young man [Alcibiades] to meet defeat in Sicily. Perils of a campaign abroad.
Necessarium necessity : Such a campaign would leave Italy vulner- able.
Scipo is needed: his absence before was what allowed Hasdrubal to cross into Spain. Conclusio Proemium His representation of his career and of himself as an older man is revealing. Glory is not for a lifetime but for posterity. Thus the young Scipio seeks to surpass the fame of the old Fabius. Tutum: Defeats the effects of which Scipio was able to overcome as a general of only twenty-four years mean that there is nothing to fear in Africa. Facile: Rejection of the exemplum of Regulus. Success of Xanthippus and especially of the Sicilian Agathocles in Africa to counter the exemplum of the Athenian defeat in Sicily.
Utile: An expedition will force Hannibal to leave Italy. Syphax and Masinissa will help lay siege to Carthage: need to take advantage of what Fortune can offer. The other consul will be able to protect Italy. Honestum honour : The image and reputation of Rome is involved: Africa should now experience defeat and devastation.
It would have been a long speech oratio and one not of concern to you, if on my part, after Quintus Fabius belittled my achievements in Spain, I wished to mock his fame and to extol my own. I shall do neither, members of the Senate. Then, if in no other respect, I as a younger man will have surpassed the older at least in modesty and holding my tongue.
My life and achievements have been such that I can be silent, and with the opinion of them you have independently formed and hold in your minds, I can be content. The carefully deployed praeteritio is succeeded by a closing captatio benevolentiae to the senators which con- forms nicely to the rhetorical prescription that praise for the audience should be connected to the issue in dispute Rhet. The answer may lie in the possibility that much written narrative in antiquity was conceived for akroasis or formal recitation.
Discussions of more general evidence for recitatio include Wiseman a, b, Quinn , and the papers in Vogt-Spira However Fowler —5 suggests the evidence for recitatio is not as decisive as it is often taken to be. The actual words of a historical personage, directly quoted at length, would thus have much more dramatic appeal for an audience at a recitation or for an audience thinking in terms of a recitation than they might for the modern silent reader.
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However, it remains to consider why, in case like the senatorial debate of BCE, Livy should present the detailed arguments of both sides. The rhetorical exercise of debating both sides of a case which came to be known as the controversia was a longstanding feature of Roman education and cultural practice which had antecedents in Athenian oratory. Scipio shows more clemency than his brother See further Clarke 17—18, 86—7, 90—5. On paired speeches, see, e. Pearson For this as the technique of the modern novelist see e.
Christopher Holdsworth and T.P. Wiseman
Georges Simenon quoted in The Sunday Times Davies and Anthony Burgess quoted in Woodman a p. Gomme pp. Westlake p. Dover, Maia 6 pp. The conventional nature of the wording at Th. Avenarius pp. Gomme p. See Wardman. Pohlenz concerning Th.
This suggestion, initially rejected by Dover p. It is of course true that results are implied by the following sentence, but I think it is significant that they are there presented from the point of view of Th. Dover p. The example at 8. Whether he would have eliminated the alternative possibilities in a final draft of Book 8 see n.
For cases of uncertainty over numerals, which perhaps form a special category e.
Bryn Mawr Classical Review
Significantly, the word is used in antiquarian digressions at 2. See Hammond p. De Ste Croix p. Westlake pp. See Grant p. Examples are 3. The self-assured nature of Th. Gay p. Lesky p. Jerome pp.
Winter pp. His references are to: F. Kipling, Souvenirs of France ; W. Andrews, Haunting Years For the opposite, the case of an exceptional memory of the Great War A. Aitken, Gallipoli to the Somme , see Neisser pp. But It Still Goes On pp. The ancients did not, of course, have to contend with shell-shock, but I think the general point still stands. Knightley p. Knightley pp. Keegan p. Middlebrook pp. White p. On the difficulties of even getting close to the action in the Falklands War see e.
The Times See also Robert Kee, The Listener p. Balfour p. According to Professor P. Wolff pp. And of course officials can also twist or falsify the information which they give to reporters and historians: for an example from the Falklands see The Times Keegan pp.
Rhetoric in Classical Historiography: Four Studies
See Thompson. A reviewer of R. For some distinctions between oral and written historiography see Momigliano pp.